The Global Environment Facility (GEF) declared that “climate change is the defining development challenge of the 21st century” (GEF 2012: v). There has been a growing recognition that climate change will increasingly compromise the lives and livelihoods of millions of people around the world, and is one of the factors challenging the realisation of the Millennium Development Goals and the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Initially, climate change responses tended to focus on mitigation activities or on understanding direct impacts.
CCA M&E is a rapidly-evolving field, and there has been a proliferation of guidelines and toolkits in recent years (those interested in a detailed review of them should consult our 2014b reference report). As investments in CCA increase, donors and development agencies are seeking to assess the effectiveness and appropriateness of the CCA activities they fund. This includes a desire to gain a broader picture of progress across an organisation or portfolio, often spanning multiple programmes, countries and sectors. This Evaluation Review, based on published portfolio evaluations of several international and donor agencies, reflects on these higher level evaluations in order to an outline of trends in CCA design, monitoring and evaluation (DME).